VET reformed education


The development of vocational education programmes is closely tied to the economic, technological and social development of the society as a whole. Schools and training institutions have to be able to promptly respond to both individual needs and employment opportunities.

A modular and competence-based curriculum is an approach that integrates learning of general knowledge, professional theory and practical skills. Through the education process the students will acquire competences to master comprehensive working tasks and also acquire a recognised qualification.

The primary goal is to create flexible and open educational programmes that can be compared and relevant to those available in the EU countries, and that meet the labour market needs. The vocational education that has undergone reform, delivers curricula and programmes for three-year Vocational education for occupations.

Vocational education for occupations

Vocational education for occupations lasts three years and enables direct entry in the labour market or further continuation of education. Practical training is delivered both in VET schools and through practical programmes provided by employers. Following the completion of the Vocational education for occupations, students take a final exam and obtain a Diploma.

Effective functioning of VET is dependent on a clear framework for recognisable qualifications. The qualifications that are part of the national education system are defined in the National Qualification Framework which shows the following summary regarding vocational training and vocational education for occupations.

Features of training and qualifications:

Entry requirements

Completed primary education. Students with special needs can enrol.

Vocational Education and Training

Duration of three years.

The educational process is realised according to curricula developed by the Bureau for Development of Education and the VET Centre, and adopted by the Minister of Education and Science. Teaching is performed in vocational schools, or institutions for adult education. Practical work is performed in schools and/or with an employer. Curricula and programmes contain objectives, educational fields, topics and content, activities and methods in teaching, including mandatory use of ICT, educational standards, profile of the teachers, premises and equipment, and evaluation of the students’ performance.

New VET-3 curricula are based on qualification standards, coherently linked with relevant occupational standards. The three elements (curriculum, qualification standard and occupational standard) were designed in a synchronised manner according to a coherent methodology.

Teachers qualifications

All teachers take higher education and professional exam. Candidates coming from non-teaching faculties, take a teaching method additional qualification in accredited higher educational institutions and passed professional exam, in accordance with the Law on Secondary Education. As an exception, teachers for practical training may also be persons with completed specialist secondary or higher professional education, with teaching qualifications from respective faculties and passed professional exam.

One component of the continuous professional development of VET teachers (for vocational subjects and for practical work) is training in companies. The training covers: technological novelties, security and protection at work place, communication, organisation, design of the work place etc.

Expected learning outcomes

The training outcomes are defined through the objectives and expected results in the programmes, for each particular subject.

Assessment and awards

Assessment of the aquired knowledge, skills and achievement is continuous throughout the learning process, with oral and written assessments, and evaluation of prepared projects. Monitoring of the progress of the skills acquired through the practical training is conducted by the teacher and by the mentor assigned by the employer.

Besides this, external assessment related to two subjects is performed by the National Examination Centre. The results of this assessment are recorded in a certificate, for each completed year of education. Upon completed vocational education for occupations, there is a final exam with theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is taken internally. The practical part is conducted in front of a Commission of teachers and employers, delegated by the Chambers. Participants receive Diploma for final exam.

Progression routes

Graduates from VET can move on to a programme that leads to university but most importantly will be prepared for immediate employment in one of the country’s industries.

Labour Market

The main purpose of VET programmes is to prepare individuals for a full career in a growing or established business.